T - Technical Dictionary


T-Bar Cross Runner                                  
A secondary member that is connected to the main runner to form a two-way exposed grid ceiling (see Figure 1(d)).

T-Bar Grid                                                 
The completed assembly of main and cross tees in a suspended ceiling system.

T-Bar Main Runner                                   
A primary rail in an exposed grid ceiling system, i.e. the suspension is fixed directly to the member.

Tabouret                                                    
This French term was originally used to describe a low, upholstered footstool shaped like a drum. Later versions were square with a padded seat.

Tactile Ground Surface Indicator              
(TGSI) Areas of raised ground surface texture treatment, typically truncated cones and or bars installed on the ground or floor surface designed to provide pedestrians who are blind or vision-impaired with warning or directional orientation information.

Tactile Signs                                              
Signage incorporating raised text, and/or symbols and Braille to enable touch reading by people who are blind or have a vision impairment.

Take Off                                                    
The material necessary to complete a job.

Tallboy                                                       
Modern name for a chest on chest. Nowadays the term generally refers to a high one-piece chest.

Tambour                                                    
A flexible, slatted, sliding shutter on a roll top desk, made of thin strips of wood laid side by side and glued to stiff cloth.

Tangent                                                     
A line that passes through the same point as a curve, in the same direction as the curve.

Tank Room                                               
Space entirely dedicated to a tank storing either a liquid or a gas.

Tanking                                                     
Waterproofing installed below grade, externally or internally, to withstand the ingress of water under hydrostatic pressure.

Tear Resistance                                        
Measures the ultimate force required to tear film or sheet. It is often used for quality control checks or for material comparison where tear failures are possible.

Technical Drawing                                    
Technical information, given on an information carrier, graphically presented in accordance with agreed rules and usually to scale.

Technically Infeasible                                
With respect to an alteration of a building or a facility, something that has little likelihood of being accomplished because existing structural conditions would require removing or altering a load-bearing member that is an essential part of the structural frame; or because other existing physical or site constraints prohibit modification or addition of elements, spaces, or features that are in full and strict compliance with the minimum requirements.

Tempered Glass                                       
Annealed glass that has been cut to size, heated up to 620o C then cooled quickly with jets of cold air. The outer layer contracts and solidifies before the inner core, and when the inside eventually cools and shrinks, it pulls on the outer layer resulting in a very stable and strong piece of glass up to 5 times stronger than annealed glass. However there is a lot of energy stored in the glass, contained by the outer layer, such then if and when the outer layer does fail there is a spectacular explosion or shattering of the glass.

Tender                                                       
Written offer to execute at a stated price or rate an order for the supply of goods or services or the execution of works in given conditions. A term that was formally abandoned by the industry in the early 1980's in favour of the preferred term BID. Tender is a term still used by many government and public agencies.

Tender Documents                                   
Documents submitted for the compiling of tenders such as Bills of Quantities, Drawings, Specifications and Contract Conditions.

Tender Sum                                              
The total sum of money forming part of the tender.

Tensile Strength                                        
Resistance of a material to a force that tends to pull it apart.

Terminological Dictionary                        
Dictionary containing the terminological data from one or more specific subject fields.

Terminology                                              
Set of terms representing the system of concepts of a particular subject field.

Terminology Science                                
The scientific study of the concepts and terms found in special languages.

Termites                                                    
Wood eating insects that superficially resemble ants in size and general appearance, and live in colonies.

Terra Cotta                                                
A ceramic material moulded into masonry units or tiles.

Terrace                                                      
A raised level bank or walk A level stretch along the side or top of a slope Ground or a structure that rises stepwise A connected row of usually identical houses, properly one overlooking a slope A raised paved area alongside a house A gallery open at the side A balcony A flat rooftop (usually in plural) The open areas rising in tiers around a football stadium, where spectators stand A defective spot in marble.

Terraced House                                        
One of the houses forming a terrace.

Terrazzo                                                    
Irregular marble or stone fragments set in a matrix of cement, polished smooth after casting.

Tessellation                                              
A technique used to manage datasets of polygons and divide them into suitable structures for rendering. Data is often tessellated into triangles, which is sometimes referred to as triangulation. When CAD or design software applications export 3D geometry to a file, they may use tessellation to approximate a curved surface.

Test Report                                               
In relation to glazing: A report issued by a test laboratory detailing the tests that a window has undergone. Tests procedures are to Australian Standard AS 2047-1996. Windows tested to this standard will be given a performance rating (in Pascals).

Thermal Expansion                                  
Linear Thermal Expansion is used to determine the rate at which a material expands as a function of temperature. This test can be used for design purposes and to determine if failure by thermal stress may occur. Understanding the relative expansion/contraction characteristics of two materials in contact can be important for application success.

Thermal Mass                                           
Mass in a building (furnishings or structure) that is used to absorb solar gain during the day and release the heat as the space cools in the evening.

Thoroughfare                                            
A public route through private land and can be a footpath.

Threshold Plate                                         
A strip fastened to the floor beneath a door. May be required to cover the joint of two types of floor materials where they meet.

Tile                                                             
A ceramic surfacing unit, usually relatively thin in relation to facial area, made from clay or a mixture or a mixture of clay and other ceramic materials called the body of the tile, and having either a glazed or unglazed face. Fired at a temperature sufficient-ly high enough to produce specific physical properties and characteristics. The following is a collection of terms regarding to floor and wall tiles and related material:

  • BED - Layer of mortar or other adhesive that covers the surface to be tiled and onto which the tiles are set
  • BICOTTURA TILE - Method for producing tile by firing it twice (first fire is for body, second is to fuse glazes or patterns in glaze onto the body).Usually, there are two glazes on the tile, first a non-transparent glaze on the body, then a transparent glaze on the surface.
  • BODY or BISQUE - The structural portion of a ceramic article, as distinct from the glaze, or the material or mixture from which the item is made.
  • BONDING MATERIAL - Any of the mortars or adhesives used to install ceramic tile. Choice of bonding material is determined by the selection of tile and requirements of area to be tiled.
  • BULLNOSE - A trim tile with a convex radius on one edge. This tile is used for finishing the top of a wainscot or for turning an out-side corner.
  • CEMENT BODY TILES - Tiles with a structure made from a mixture of sand, gravel and water to form concrete.
  • CERAMIC TILE - A flat cladding or building material, of relative thinness, composed of clays and fired to hardness at red heat or better. The face may be glazed or unglazed.
  • COVE - A trim tile unit having one edge with a concave radius. A cove is used to form a junction between the bottom wall course and the floor or to form an inside corner.
  • CRAZING - The cracking that occurs in fired glazes or other ceramic coatings due to critical tensile stresses (minute surface cracks).
  • EPOXY - Resin material used in mortars and grouts for thin-set tile installations.
  • EXPANSION JOINTS - Used in tile installations over all cold joints and saw-cut control.
  • EXTRUDED TILE - A tile unit that is formed when plastic clay mixtures are forced through a pug mill opening (die) of suitable con-figuration, resulting in a continuous ribbon of formed clay. A wire cutter or similar cut-off device is then used to cut the ribbon into appropriate lengths and widths of tile.
  • FLOOR TILES - Gazed or unglazed tiles of sufficient strength, impact and abrasion resistance to withstand the weight and wear of foot traffic.
  • GLASS MOSAIC TILES - Mosaic tiles composed of glass, rather than ceramic, material; mosaic tiles coated with a layer of coloured or transparent glass.
  • GLAZE - A ceramic coating matured to the glassy state on ceramic tile. The term “glaze” also refers to the material or mixture from which the coating is made. 
  • BRIGHT GLAZE: A high gloss coating with or without colour. 
  • CLEAR GLAZE: A transparent glaze with or without colour. 
  • CRACKLE GLAZE: Special glaze featuring fine-line ‘cracks’ for antique effect. CRYSTALLINE GLAZE: A glaze that contains microscopic crystals. 
  • FRITTED GLAZE: A glaze in which apart or all of the fluxing constituents are pre-fused. 
  • MATTE GLAZE: A low-gloss glaze with or without colour. 
  • OPAQUE GLAZE: A non-transparent glaze with or without colour. 
  • RAW GLAZE: A glaze com-pounded primarily from raw constituents. It contains no pre-fused materials. 
  • SEMI-MATTE GLAZE: A medium-gloss glaze with or without colour. 
  • SPECKLED GLAZE: A glaze containing granules of oxides or ceramic stains that are contrasting colours.
  • GLAZED TILE - Tile with a fused impervious facial finish composed of ceramic materials fused to the body of the tile, which may benon-vitreous, vitreous or impervious.
  • GROUT - A cementitious or other type material used for filling joints between tile.
  • JOINT FILLER - Another term for sanded floor grout. Can also be compressible material used to prevent the infiltration of debris or used to provide support for sealants.
  • KEY IN - The flat towelling of a substrate prior to using the notched side.
  • LATEX - A liquid water emulsion of a polymers used to impart special properties such as adhesion and flexibility
  • LATEX-PORTLAND CEMENT GROUT - Combines Portland cement grout with a special latex additive.
  • LATEX-PORTLAND CEMENT MORTAR - A mixture of Portland cement, sand and a special latex additive which is used as a bond coat for setting tile.
  • LIPPAGE - A condition where one edge of a tile is higher than an adjacent tile.
  • LUGS - Protuberances attached to tiles to maintain even spacing for grout lines.
  • MONOCOTTURA TILE - Tiles produced by a single firing. Tiles maybe glazed or unglazed.
  • MONOCOTTURA TILES - Tiles produced by a single firing. Tiles maybe glazed or unglazed.
  • MONOPOROSA TILES - Single-fired tiles with higher porosity and water absorption levels than traditional monocottura tiles.
  • MORTAR BED - A layer of mortar on which tile is set; also known as mud set.
  • MOSAICS - Small tiles or bits of tile, stone or glass which are used to form a surface or a intricate pattern.
  • MOUNTED TILES - Tiles assembled into units or sheets by the manufacturer for easier installation. Back and edge mounted tiles are bonded to material (mesh, paper, resin or other) that becomes apart of the installation. Face mounted tiles are bonded to a material that is removed prior to grouting.
  • MOVEMENT JOINTS - Various methods require proper design and location of expansion joints. Also known as Expansion Joints.
  • NATURAL CLAY TILE - A ceramic mosaic tile or a paver tile made by either the dust-pressed or the plastic method from clays which produce a dense body and a distinctive slightly textured appearance.
  • NOMINAL SIZES - The approximate facial size or thickness of tile, expressed in inches or fractions of an inch.
  • NON-VITREOUS TILE - Tile with water absorption of more than 7%.
  • PAVER TILES - Glazed or unglazed porcelain or natural clay tile formed by the dust-pressed method.
  • PORCELAIN TILE - A ceramic mosaic tile or a paver tile that is generally made by the dust-pressed method from a composition which results in a tile that is dense, impervious, fine grained and smooth, with a sharply formed face. The surface can be glazed or unglazed. Specify FULL-BODY PORCELAIN TILE
  • QUARRY TILE - A thick robust clay tile used to finish a floor or wall.
  • QUARRY TILE - Glazed or unglazed tile made by the extrusion process from natural clay or shale, usually having six square inches or more of facial area.
  • SLIP RESISTANCE R VALUE R 9 - Wet Ramp: Class A (Dry area) - Wet Pendulum: X (Moderate risk of contributing to slipping when wet) Suitable for internal dry commercial pedestrian walkways that require high wear resistance and are easily cleaned. Venue examples: Entrance halls, corridors, shops and general pedestrian walk ways.
  • SLIP RESISTANCE R VALUE R10 - Wet Ramp: Class C (Wet and Dry areas) - Wet Pendulum: W (Low risk of contributing to slipping when wet) The following products are suitable for internal / under cover commercial pedestrian walkways, which may be wet from time to time. Such products have high wear resistance and a textured surface that aids water displacement and improves slip resistance. Venue examples: Commercial toilets, ensuites, washrooms and commercial kitchens (up to 100 meals per day).
  • SLIP RESISTANCE R VALUE R11 - Wet Ramp: Class C (Wet and Dry areas) - Wet Pendulum: V (Very low risk of contributing to slipping when wet) Hydro: The following products are suitable for internal and external commercial pedestrian areas that are specifically designed for wet bare foot conditions. These products have high wear resistance and a textured surface that aids water displacement and improves slip resistance. All these products are frost resistant. . Venue examples: Shower recesses, pool surrounds and hydrotherapy rooms.
  • SLIP RESISTANCE R Value: R12 - Wet Ramp: Class C (Wet and Dry areas) - Wet Pendulum: V (Very low risk of contributing to slipping when wet) Suitable for both internal and external pedestrian ramps wet and dry. All such products have high wear resistance and are frost resistant.
  • SUBSTRATE - The underlying support for ceramic tile installations.
  • TERRACOTTA - Hard baked tile of variable colour and water absorption. Usually unglazed, this product requires a sealer to prevent staining. Sometimes referred to as Cotto.
  • UNGLAZED TILE - A hard, dense tile of uniform composition throughout, deriving colour and texture from the materials of which the body is made.
  • VITREOUS TILE - Tile with water absorption of more than 0.5 per-cent, but not more than 3 percent. 
  • WALL TILE - A glazed tile with a body that is suitable for interior use and which is usually non-vitreous, and is not required nor expected to withstand excessive impact or be subjected to freezing and thawing conditions.


Tile Flashing                                              
A folded metal flashing under roof tiles and over metal roof.

Tilt-Top Table                                            
A table with a top that is hinged to its base on one side so that it can be tilted into a vertical position, enabling the table to be stored against a wall.

Timber                                                       
Wood that has been refined into a form suitable for use in carpentry or joinery.

Timber Reveal                                          
The timber surround that is factory fitted to aluminium windows.

Toeboard                                                   
A scaffold plank fixed on edge or a purpose-designed component that is fixed at the roof edge or platform, to prevent a person or debris from falling from the roof edge or platform.

Tongue And Groove Joint                        
(T & G) A joint made by a tongue (a rib on one edge of a board) that fits into a corresponding groove in the edge of another board to make a tight flush joint.

Tongue And Groove Timber                     
Boards that have a groove on one side and a tongue on the other so they can be joined together.

Tooling                                                       
The smoothing of the surface of a material. A technique of decorating leather by embossing, gilding or incising, and often seen as the border of a leather insert on a writing desk.

Top Chord                                                 
The upper or top member of a truss.

Top Plate                                                   
Top horizontal member of a frame wall supporting ceiling joists, rafters, or other members.Top Rail Highest rail of a handrail system.

Toughened Glass                                     
Glass which has been subjected to special heat or chemical treatment so that the residual surface compression stress and the edge compression stress is greater than the heat strengthened glass. Also known as tempered glass, if fractured will entirely disintegrate into small relatively harmless particles.

Town Planner                                           
Person who designs the layout of towns and cities.

Tracery                                                      
The curvilinear openwork shapes of stone or wood creating a pattern within the upper part of a Gothic window; or similar patterns applied to walls or panels.

Traffic And Parking Plan                           
Plan that shows traffic movement routes and areas for parking.

Trafficable Surface                                   
Surfaces that are intended to withstand traffic experienced during maintenance procedures.

Trafficable Surface, Pedestrian                
Surfaces that are intended to withstand pedestrian traffic.

Trafficable Surface, Vehicular                  
Surface that is intended to withstand vehicular traffic.

Transfer Device                                        
Equipment designed to facilitate the transfer of a person from a wheelchair or other mobility aid to and from an amusement ride seat.

Transient Lodging                                     
A building or facility containing one or more guest room(s) for sleeping that provides accommodations that are primarily short-term in nature. Transient lodging does not include residential dwelling units intended to be used as a residence, inpatient medical care facilities, licensed long-term care facilities, detention or correctional facilities, or private buildings or facilities that contain not more than five rooms for rent or hire and that are actually occupied by the proprietor as the residence of such proprietor.

Transition Plate                                         
A sloping pedestrian walking surface located at the end(s) of a gangway.

Transom                                                   
The horizontal dividing member in a window or door frame.The crossbar horizontally dividing a window.A structure dividing a window horizontally; a lintel; a small window over the lintel of a door or window; a crosspiece A horizontal frame member other than the head or sill.

Trap                                                           
A plumbing fitting that holds water to prevent air, gas, and vermin from backing up into a fixture.

Tread                                                         
The walking surface board in a stairway on which the foot is placed.

Trench                                                      
Noun a long, narrow, deep cut in the earth or other substrate.

Triangulation                                              
The process of dividing a shape into triangles to determine its area or to approximate a curved surface (as for a 3D shape).

Trimmer                                                    
The vertical stud that supports a header at a door, window, or other opening.

Troglodyte                                                
A cave-dweller. Maybe one day you will be an Architect for a cave project...

Truss                                                         
A structural support unit of three or more members, usually arranged in a triangular shape. Trusses are often used to support roofs and floors.

Tube                                                          
Measured by OD (outside diameter) could be round or other shape, seamless or with a seam, but always hollow.

Turpentine                                                 
A petroleum, volatile oil used as a thinner in paints and as a solvent in varnishes.

Two-way rigid framework                         
Two-way rigid framework are made up of two planes of rigid frames intersecting at right angles using common columns at the intersections. This type of framework resists lateral forces in both planes by frame action without the need for any stabilizing elements. All the beam to column connections must therefore be of a rigid type. The columns may need to have approximately equal stiffness in both directions, so that boxed or tubular columns may be employed due to their high stiffness about both principal axes. Under the action of lateral forces, there is always some sway as a result of the elastic deformation of the framework.The main advantage of the two-way rigid framing system is in the complete freedom in the planning it offers. Also the reduction in the sizes of the floor beams due to the end rigid fixings. On the negative side is the need for more costly rigid connections and the extra mass required in the column sizes.

Typical                                                       
A type; representative of a group.

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