An acronym for computer-aided design.
The presentation of selected parts of a CAD model as projected on a drawing sheet. Visibility on the drawing can be controlled by viewpoints and layers. The drawing sheet can also contain additional graphics, such as borderlines, title-blocks and legends. CAD drawings can also be produced independently without an underlying CAD model, a drawing-oriented approach as opposed to the model-oriented approach.
CAD drawing file
Electronically Saved Drawing Data. Also is CAD
An acronym for computer-aided design and drafting.
“Completely Knocked Down” Term used to describe a window or door supplied in component parts only.
Construction Specifications Institute.
Cups, saucers and plates made primarily for display, rather than use.
A conductor or group of conductors enclosed in a weatherproof sheath, that may be used to sup-ply electrical power and/or control current for equipment or to provide voice communication circuits
Flexible wire mesh gripping device designed so that the more you pull, the more it grips; used with swing stages to support the weight of the cable and to relieve stress upon the electrical wiring devices.
A double curved and tapering furniture leg, often ending in a stylized paw or club. The double curve turns in at the knee and flares out at the foot. The design derives from the Spanish word for the muscular hind legs of certain animals, such as a goat.
An armchair with a hollow, shaped back, and open armrests.
CAD data file(s) organised according to the physical parts of the objects represented e.g. a building. Models can be two-dimensional or three-dimensional.
The process of calcifying or becoming calcified, a conversion into lime.
Triple-curved chair back with a raised central curve.
The portion of a structural member which projects beyond its support.
The upper member of a column, pilaster, door cornice, moulding, or fireplace.
The absorption of moisture into small voids in a material until the void is full. Capillary action, or “wicking” of water into cellulose-based façade elements, such as wood and wood fibre-based products, is a common source of in-service, moisture-related deterioration of exterior wall systems and assemblies.
The topmost element of a column or pilaster.
A folded metal cover at the top of a wall or fascia.
A connector component generally comprised of a trapezoidal or oval shaped body with a normally closed gate or similar arrangement which may be opened to permit the body to receive an object and, when released, automatically closes to retain the object.
The framework of anything. The outer part of the cabinet or wardrobe’s with no shelves or furnishings etc. A ruin.
A carpark can be a whole, or part, of a building. It is any building not associated with a Class 1 building and accommodates more than three vehicles on one storey. It is not a “private garage”. For example, a building could be a carpark if: it is either a stand-alone Class 7a building, or it is appurtenant to any other building (excluding a Class 1 building); or it is intended to park four-or-more trucks or other vehicles and it is not used for ancillary purposes other than a carpark.
Furniture with a general “box” structure and shape, such as chests, cupboards and bureau.
Movable and lockable component of a window characterized by a rotational connection to the frame; it may also provide some sliding movement.
Side that the hinge in on. For residential windows, the hinge side is looking from the outside. For commercial windows, the hinge side is looking from the inside.
A window hinged on one of its vertical sides to open inwards or outwards like a door. The whole sash swings in or out from the jamb of the window and it either uses a crank-out system or a friction system of operation. It’s the best window choice for catching breezes and providing cross-ventilation.A window where the sash opens outward hinged on the side rail.
Exposed moulding or framing around a window or door, on either the inside or outside to cover the space between the window frame or jamb and the wall.
A small solid swivelling wheel attached to furniture enabling it to be easily moved.
A ladder fixed to a vertical wall.
The code number appearing on the window brochure that denotes that particular window.
A narrow platform extending out into an auditorium; “models displayed clothes on a catwalk at the fashion show” A narrow pathway high in the air, as above a stage or between parts of a building or along a bridge. A narrow fixed walkway providing access to an otherwise inaccessible area or to lighting units, light bridges, etc. used above an excavation, around a high building, above the ceiling of an auditorium or theatre, or around a statehouse.
The process of sealing a joint by extruding and tooling a sealant.
A two-seater sofa, whose name derives from the French verb causer, to chat, because it is ideal for holding a conversation.
Describes a construction where both the outside and inside skins are brickwork.
An applied section usually fitted to the inside of the jamb section that extends the frame depth so that the window section spans the cavity.
A folded flashing to direct water to the outside wall skin usually to a series of weepholes.
A brick wall laid in 2 close rows which are connected by ties.
A ceiling suspension component that is used to connect a main runner or primary channel to the supporting structure above.
One of a series of parallel framing members used to support ceiling loads and supported in turn by larger beams, girders or bearing walls. Also called roof joists.
Ceiling Plan Drawing
Drawing which specifies the scope and workmanship of the ceilings of a storey of a building and which is normally in mirrored projection.
Similar to ceiling tile, but with the dimension ratio generally greater than 2 to 1 and usually only supported on the smaller dimension. NOTE: Planks are often supported wall to wall, as in corridors, and not suspended from the plenum.
Ceiling Suspension System
An assembly of ceiling components for suspending ceiling systems.
The components that together form the basis of a ceiling, including the grid members and suspension system. A ceiling system may be direct fixed or suspended.
- CONCEALED GRID CEILING SYSTEM: A suspended ceiling system in which the supporting system is not exposed to view.
- LINEAR OR STRIP CEILING SYSTEM: A ceiling whose soffit has the appearance of continuous strips of infill materials.
- NON-TRAFFICABLE CEILING SYSTEM: A ceiling system where access by personnel on to the ceiling system for any purpose is strictly prohibited.
- ONE-WAY EXPOSED GRID CEILING SYSTEM: A ceiling whose soffit has the supporting grid members visible in one direction.
- SHEETED OR FLUSH CEILING SYSTEM: A ceiling lined with building board where the joints between the board are either exposed, set or concealed with cover strips, beads or the like, such that the supporting grid members are not visible.
- TWO-WAY EXPOSED GRID CEILING SYSTEM: A ceiling whose soffit has the supporting grid members visible in two directions.
- CELL CEILING SYSTEM: An egg-crate like structure with open areas to the plenum but with a closed appearance at low angle viewing.
- LUMINOUS CEILING SYSTEM: A ceiling of translucent material with lamps in the ceiling void to light the space below.
- OPEN CEILING SYSTEM: A suspended ceiling formed of louvers, battens, open cells or similar ceiling components.
An infill unit that is fitted within or to the ceiling grid system to form a soffit.
A storage area in a domestic building which is wholly or at least 50% underground. Basement in other than domestic use. C
A grey powder which, when combined with water and other materials, forms the “glue” in concrete. Also, any adhesive.
A special type of hanging device for heavy-duty doors that usually swing both ways (double-acting).
The formal assertion in writing of some fact. The act of certifying or state of being certified.
A horizontal rail fitted to windows or door (approx. 750-1000mm above floor level).
A horizontal moulding at chairback height to protect the wall.
A high back upholstered seat or armchair with an elongated seat, allowing a person to recline, and with different height arms at each end. Also known as a dormouse or merideienne.
A long line or string used for setting out long, straight, lines. The line is coating in chalk dust and held taut against a surface to the desired level. The middle is lifted away from the surface and allowed to snap back. The chalk dust comes off the string and onto the surface forming a “chalk line”.A line made by snapping a taut string or cord dusted with chalk. Used for alignment purposes.
A diagonal line, which connects points on two intersecting objects such as an angled corner.A bevel or slope surface made by paring or shaving the edge or corner of the usually right-angled surface of a material at 45 degrees.
A Change Order is a written amendment to the Contract prepared by the Consultant and signed by the Owner and the Contractor stating their agreement upon:a change in the Work;the method of adjustment or the amount of the adjustment in the Contract Price, if any; and the extent of the adjustment in the Contract Time, if any.
A passage for conveying a liquid; a groove or furrow; a gutter.
A labour rate that includes the all-in labour rate plus supervision, overheads, small tools and profit.
The French term ‘originated in the Ecole des Beaux Arts in the 19th century. Architecture and art students worked frantically in the studios to complete their work as before the cart or ‘charrette’ was circulated to collect the final drawings.
A groove cut in a wall or other surface for services or as decoration.A groove or channel cut into a building element for the purposes of laying pipes and/or wiring. This is generally created in masonry elements such as floors, ceilings and walls.
The bottom horizontal member of the upper sash and the top horizontal member of the lower sash which meet at the middle of a double-hung window.
An adhesive (chemical) for the fixing of threaded rods, bolts and reinforcing (anchors) into insitu concrete, stone and masonry. Typically the in-situ material is drilled to a depth suitable for the anchors. An adhesive is placed into the hole followed by the anchor, which is let to dry. A common application is for base plates of columns where cast-in anchors could not be placed.Proprietary chemical anchors brands are: “Ramset Chemset System”, “Ramset Structaset”, “Ramset UltraFix”, “Hilti HVU adhesive anchor” and the “Hilti HIT injection system”.
Is a proprietary adhesive for the fixing of threaded rods, bolts and reinforcing (anchors) into insitu concrete, stone and masonry. Typically the in-situ material is drilled to a depth suitable for the anchor. An adhesive is placed into the hole followed by the anchor or insert, which is let to dry. A common application is for base plates of columns where cast-in anchors could not be placed. The term “chemical anchor” can also mean Chemset. Chemset is distributed in Australia under the Ramset brand.
A tall chest of drawers, mounted on another similar slightly larger chest, also known as a tallboy.
A tall, freestanding mirror supported by a four-legged base.
A small work-table with two or three drawers beneath the top, usually fitted with a metal gallery rail and with a shelf above fitted between long slim legs.
Describes spaces and elements specifically designed for use primarily by people 12 years old and younger.
Passage for the escape of fumes, smoke or heated air from a fireplace, engine or furnace; a chimney stack.
Projection from the face of a wall that contains a fireplace or flue.
The natural tendency of heat to flow upwards.
Chimney that is of substantial height and usually contains a flue of large cross-section.
A cabinet with glass fronts, designed to display and store fine china. Sides may be of either wood or glass, and modern versions generally feature lights.
A European style of decoration consisting of fanciful oriental-style figures and motifs. The style was popular during the late 18th century.
A manufactured wood panel made out of 1″- 2″ wood chips and glue. Often used as a substitute for plywood in the exterior wall and roof sheathing. Also called OSB (Oriented Strand Board) or wafer board.
Furniture named after the English designer and cabinet-maker Thomas Chippendale. The furniture is in the Rococo style, with much ornamental, openwork carving (e.g. in chair backs). The style featuring Chinoiserie is called Chinese Chippendale.
The top or bottom member of a trussThe horizontal member of a bowstring trussA straight line drawn across a circle with each end touching the circumference.Figure 01. What chords are example.Enlarge Figure 01. What chords are example.
A heavy metal that is used in many building products including tapware, stainless steel, leather tanning and timber CCA preservatives.IARC lists it in Group 3 (not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans). Chromium VI (hexavalent) is an Australian National Pollutants Index (NPI) listed chemical. In its insoluble trivalent hydroxide form (as opposed to the NPI listed hexavalent form) it is a common by-product of leather tanning and has been linked to vitro teratogenic and bioaccumulative effects, primarily via inhalation and skin exposure. Chromium is one of a group of chemicals that cannot be added during manufacture if furniture is to be awarded a Good Environmental Choice Australia Ecolabel.
The path of electrical flow from a power source through an outlet and back to ground.
Safety device used to open a faulty or overloaded electrical circuit.
Diagram that specifies the functional composition of an electrical installation.
Circular Hollow Section
A steel structural member similar to a pipe shape. Also called at CHS.
Space linking together individual rooms or spaces within a single Functional Area. It includes the area occupied by internal walls and columns.
Total area of all enclosed spaces forming entrance halls, corridors, staircases, lift wells, connecting links and the like.
An exterior or interior way of passage provided for pedestrian travel, including but not limited to, paths, hallways, courtyards, elevators, platform lifts, ramps, stairways, and landings.
Space for the movement of people, goods or vehicles.
A circle or ring; a road forming a closed loop; an open (mostly circular) area in a town where streets converge; a circular range of houses.
City Beautiful Style
The architectural and town planning style of the early 20th century that advocated the treatment of a city as a work of art.
A layer of material that protects the structural elements of a building. Metal, brick, timber, and cement sheets are all common types of cladding.The non-loadbearing external surfacing of a building designed to provide a weather-proof enclosure, fixed to framing.
Class 1 Finish
Highest category of formwork finish requiring the most rigorous specification. Only recommended for use in – very special features of buildings of a monumental nature; selected small elements; areas of special importance in limited quantities; elements contained in a single pour (implying that finishes from different pours will differ from one another.
Class 2 Finish
Category of formwork finish recommended for most good quality architectural precast concrete.
Class 3 Finish
Category of formwork finish recommended for buildings and structures where visual quality is important but which is of less importance architecturally. It provides a perfectly acceptable standard for many industrial and civil structures and will result in cost savings for the owner.
Class 4 Finish
Category of formwork finish recommended for situations where the visual quality is not important and applies to a surface which is concealed from general view.
Class 5 Finish
Lowest category of formwork finish recommended for situations where the surface is never seen.
Pertaining to the architecture of ancient Greece and Rome.Referring to the culture, art, and architecture of ancient Greece and Rome
A form of art derived from the study of Greek and Roman styles characterized by harmony, balance, and serenity. In contrast, the Romantic Movement gave free rein to the artist’s imagination and to the love of the exotic.
In the context of the Building Code Of Australia (BCA) the classification of a building or part of a building is determined by the purpose for which it is designed, constructed, or adapted to be used. Buildings are classified as follows:
- CLASS 1a: A single dwelling
- CLASS 1b: A boarding house, guest house, hostel or the like
- CLASS 2: A building containing 2 or more separate sole-occupancy units
- CLASS 3 A residential building for unrelated persons
- CLASS 4 : The only dwelling in a Class 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9 building
- CLASS 5: An office building
- CLASS 6: A shop for the sale of goods or supply of services to the public
- CLASS 7a: A car park
- CLASS 7b: For storage or display of goods for sale
- CLASS 8: A laboratory, handicraft production, assembling, altering, repairing, packing, finishing, or cleaning for sale or gain
- CLASS 9a: A health-care building
- CLASS 9b: An assembly building; trade workshop
- CLASS 9c: An aged care building
- CLASS 10a: A non-habitable private garage, carport, shed, or the like
- CLASS 10b: A fence, mast, antenna, retaining or free-standing wall, swimming pool, or the like
An opening providing access to a drain line. Closed with a threaded plug.
A janitor room in non-residence building
Distance between opposite faces of supports.
A short metal bracket fixed to a structure for attaching other items.
A window placed vertically in a wall above one’s line of vision to provide natural light, often at the intersection of two offset roof planes.
Clerk Of The Works
An older term meant to refer to an owner’s representative or inspector, on the project site, acting on behalf of an owner.
Person or organization that requires a construction to be provided, altered or extended, and is responsible for initiating and approving the brief.
A telephone with a dedicated line such as a house phone, courtesy phone or phone that must be used to gain entry to a facility.
Bead molding applied to the edges of drawers.
A long, low table used in front of a sofa.
A small dressing table with hinged lid concealing an interior mirror and small drawers for toiletries.
Cold joints are formed primarily between slab pours. A control joint to be installed over all cold joints in the slab. Where conditions do not allow one to install a control joint, the use of a crack isolation membrane may be considered, along with a control joint in the tile surface as close as possible to the cold joint in the substrate.
A device to seal a sleeve to the substrate.
Collecting Safe Area
A safe area that receives occupants from the assembly space it serves, as well as from other safe areas.
A window that is configured with horizontal and vertical bars to recreate the early colonial style of windows. Effect can be achieved with applied bars adhered to the glass or individually glazed.
A series of columns placed at regular intervals supporting a horizontal structure or roof.
A simple diagram that shows the relationship between colours. Often used by interior designers.
An upright pillar, typically cylindrical and made of stone or concrete, supporting an entablature, arch, or other structure or standing…A vertical load-bearing feature of any shape and of a smaller size as not to be understood as a load-bearing wall. A free-standing vertical load-bearing feature. In classical architecture it consists of a base, a shaft and a capital. A grille column, or plate column, is a thin. Flat, decorated support of cast or wrought iron. A belted column has a decorative device around its shaft. A colonette is a column of stumpy proportions.
A material that can be burnt.
Any liquid having a flash point at or above 38 degrees Celsius and below 93 degrees Celsius.
The act of statically and dynamically testing the operation of building systems, to ensure the operation of these facilities throughout the entire range of building operating conditions. In other words, building systems activation and verification of correct function.
A French term for chest-of drawers. It also refers to a type of furniture concealing a chamber pot.
Common Path Of Egress Travel
That portion of exit access which the occupants are required to traverse before two separate and distinct paths of egress travel to two exits are available. Paths that merge are common paths of travel. Common paths of egress travel shall be included within the permitted travel distance.
Interior or exterior circulation paths, rooms, spaces, or elements that are not for public use and are made available for the shared use of two or more people.
A wall that is common to adjoining buildings. It be on one allotment or straddle a boundary.
The ability of two or more materials to exist in close and permanent association for an indefinite period with no adverse effect on one another.
A method of securing the glass into the aluminium frame glazing pocket by using a soft gasket on one side of the glass and a firm, dense gasket called a wedge on the other. Also see Wedge Glazing.
A member of a truss system which connects the bottom and top chords and which provides downward support.
A mixture of cement, gravel, sand and water.
Transfer of force between concrete and reinforcement at their interface.
Distance between concrete surface and surface of reinforcement or duct of prestressing tendons.
Concrete Masonry Unit
(CMU) A hollow concrete block or brick.
Combination of materials required to make concrete.
Concrete construction, horizontal or nearly horizontal, of large area relative to its thickness.
Beads or drops of water (and frequently frost in extremely cold weather) that accumulate on the inside of the exterior covering of a building. Use of louvers or attic ventilators will reduce moisture condensation in attics. A vapour barrier under the gypsum lath or dry wall on exposed walls will reduce condensation.
A trough for carrying off condensed or infiltrated water; this may be drained to the exterior or allowed to evaporate.
The outdoor component of a cooling system. It includes a compressor and condensing coil designed to give off heat.
A space within a building where the environment is air-conditioned.
Conditions Of The Contract
Those portions of the Contract Documents which define the rights and responsibilities of the contracting parties and of others involved in the Work. The Conditions of the Contract include General Conditions, Supplementary Conditions and other Conditions.
A process of heat transfer whereby heat moves directly through a material by molecular agitation. The handle of a cast-iron frying pan becomes hot due to conduction.
The transfer of heat through a given material Thermal conductivity describes a substance’s ability to transmit heat. – see U-value which is the measure of conductivity, the inverse of R-value. Electrical conductivity describes a substance’s ability to transmit electrical current. Conductivity is the opposite of resistivity.
A channel, pipe, tube or duct conveying water or other fluid, or covering electric wires, etc; a fountain for supplying the public with water.
Meeting room of 20 or more people. Meeting rooms where 19 or fewer people.
Maintenance to preserve the appearance of a building or other structure, particularly when of historic interest; or to preserve an ecosystem in nature.
A panel or cabinet with dials, switches, etc, control unit of an electrical, electronic or mechanical system An ornamental device resembling a bracket, frequently in the form of the letter S, used to support cornices, or for placing busts, vases or figures on A large radio or television set or radiogram that stands, in a cabinet, on the floor A cabinet for this or similar apparatus. (French; probably connected with consolidate)
A table supported against a wall by consoles or brackets.
Activities relating to building, refurbishment, maintenance, civil engineering, process engineering, mining and heavy engineering projects.
A joint between different materials stages of construction, not necessarily intended to accommodate movement. The plane where two successive placements of concrete meet but do not bond cementitiously. Sometimes dowels or reinforcing steel are used to hold the concrete on both sides together. A control joint to be placed over this joint in the tile.
A process to administrate and manage the actual construction of a project or parts of a project on behalf of an owner or a project manager; usually begins with overseeing the bid process (usually multiple bids), coordinating and monitoring construction activities, establishing a progressive commissioning process; the process may involve consultation or direction to the design consultants during the latter portion of the design development stage where it overlaps the construction phase.
A form of sculpture using wood, metal, glass, and modern industrial materials expressing the technological society. The mobiles of Alexander Calder are examples of the movement.
A specialist (person or organization) commissioned to plan, design, schedule, quantify, cost prepare detail drawings and specifications for bid, award, or site review of a construction contract for a new or renovated facility, or a portion or all of these tasks. Consultants in some countries need to be licensed by law.
A sum included in an estimate or tender for undefined and unforeseen costs or work. It may be allocated to a nominated area eg Foundations or Design, or it may not. It may also be identified as a requirement in tender documents – see Contingency Allowance.
Beam that spans three or more supports.
Legally enforceable agreement to supply goods, execute work or provide services.
A person, firm, or corporation contracting with the owner (client), undertaking the execution of the work and to construct the facility; usually referred to as a general contractor.
Tooled, straight grooves made on concrete floors to “control” where the concrete should crack. Trade name can also be Dummy Joint.
A heat-transfer process involving motion in a fluid (such as air) caused by the difference in density of the fluid and the action of gravity. Convection affects heat transfer from the glass surface to room air as well as between two panes of glass.
Cooling Load And Heating Load
These are the thermal loads that are required to maintain the desired space temperature. They are the amount of cooling or heating produced by artificial means to compensate for the energy passing through a building’s envelope, rather than the amount of energy required by the heating or cooling appliances. Heating and cooling equipment have different levels of efficiencies, so the cooling or heating energy produced is different to the energy being used by the appliance.
A large cupboard or room kept at a temperature lower than room temperature for long term, stable storage.
A capping course at the top of a masonry wall or balustrade.
The triangular, decorative and supporting member that holds a mantel or horizontal shelf.
Innermost element of a product or structure.
A strip of formed sheet metal placed on outside corners of drywall before applying drywall ‘mud’.
Diagonal braces at the corners of the framed structure designed to stiffen and strengthen the wall.
An enclosed means of access from several rooms or spaces to an exit.
A double-hung window in which the upper sash is shorter than the lower sash.
An assembly called together for deliberation, advice, administration or legislation; the people making up such an assembly; the body directing the affairs of a town, county, parish, etc.
Batten nailed parallel to the rafters over a boarded or felted roof.
To enlarge a hole to a given depth.
A foundation wall section that strengthens (and generally perpendicular to) a long section of foundation wall.
To form a depression to fit the conic head of a screw or the thickness of a plate so that the face will be level with the surface.
A vertical coupling member used to join two windows together.
A horizontal layer of material, especially masonry.
A clear space enclosed by walls or buildings.
External space bounded by buildings, walls or fences.
Also coving Concave moulding at or fitted to the internal angle between two surfaces.The curving of a floor material at the intersection of the floor and wall surfaces, so as to make a smooth continuous curved skirting to facilitate hygiene.
A moulding with a concave face used as trim or to finish interior corners.
The standards that define how a property may be used and the protections the developer makes for the benefit of all owners in a subdivision.
Vertical distance between the top of a buried pipe or other construction and the finished ground level.Shortest distance between reinforcing and surface of concrete.
Usually vertical cover plates used to join two windows side by side or around corner. Cover Plates are manufactured from short aluminium either flat or bent to shape.
Minute cracks in a surface or coating caused by force bending a material, beyond the recommended minimum radius.
In the home office, a long piece used behind the desk with a knee hole space; often used for a computer or monitor.
A decorative piece along the top of a wall or roof, e.g. filigree cast iron along the ridge.
A retaining wall usually constructed with a batter of small components.
A peaked saddle construction on a roof behind a chimney or the like to shed water or snow.
Critical Radiant Flux
A test in accordance with AS ISO 9239.1 determines the critical radiant flux of a material. A higher value indicates better performance.
An aisle in a place of assembly usually parallel to rows of seats, connecting other aisles or connecting an aisle and an exit.
The slope that is perpendicular to the direction of travel (see running slope).
Two pieces of timber or steel crossing each other as braces for walls.
Section which shows a cut that is perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the object.
Partitions which do not extend to the ceiling.
Early 20th-century French movement marked by a revolutionary departure from representational art. Pablo Picasso and Georges Bracque penetrated the surface of objects, stressing basic abstract geometric forms that presented the object from many angles simultaneously.
An item of furniture or a recess fitted with a door, used for storage.
A chemical reaction that changes a material from a workable state to the final use.
Measurement of electricity.
A non-load-bearing exterior building wall facade fixed to the exterior of the building and may not be supported within frames at each storey.
Window hardware only operable with a tool or key.
Cut and Fill
Earthwork technique to lessen a variation in ground level by using material excavated from higher ground to raise the level of lower ground.
Cutter Soil Mix or CSM Shoring Wall
Cutter Soil Mix (CSM) technology is a soil mixing technique which injects and mixes binding agents (generally cement) with the aid of water and air with in-situ soils to produce a final hardened product. Once cured, these mixed soils are capable of retaining soils and water for deep excavations, environmental cut-off walls or carrying structural loads from roads, embankments, tanks or other movement sensitive structures. The CSM system is ideally suited to granular soils but can also be constructed through clays and some lower quality rock. The CSM technique differs from traditional soil mixing methods by utilising cutter wheels mounted on a drive head which rotate about the horizontal axis, similar to those used on diaphragm walling mills. The use of rotating wheels on the cutter head plus full computer instrumentation and built in inclinometers ensures that CSM walls can be constructed to accurate vertical tolerances. As a retention solution, CSM walls are cost effective as they provide a more efficient structural section than many conventional piled walls. Reducing cross sectional area means reduced wastage and cost. A significant reduction in the number of joints between panels also means that the propensity to leak through cold joints is reduced for CSM walls over traditional secant pile walls. CSM walls can be constructed to considerable depths in either 550mm or 1000mm thickness with panels being typically 2,200mm long. Walls are reinforced by installing UC or UB sections into the freshly cast panels at spacings to suit structural loadings. As a foundation solution for movement sensitive structures such as roads, tanks and embankments CSM is ideally suited due to the large surface area of the barrette (550mm or 1,000mm wide by 2,400mm long) which provides significant shaft friction capacity, combined with the large cross sectional area of the head and lower stiffness of the material which significantly reduces punching issues into upper structures. References: www.vibropile.com.au
A shallow space below the living quarters of a house, normally enclosed by the foundation wall and having a dirt floor.
Usually refers to the flat metal plate on the end of a mortise type cylinder which actuates the lock mechanism when rotated by the key.