Absorption, initial rate of (IRA)
See initial rate of absorption (IRA).
The amount of water the unit will absorb when immersed in either cold or boiling water for a stated length of time. Expressed as a percent of the weight of the dry unit. Compare porosity.
Admixture (or additive)
Material added to mortar as a water repellent or coloring agent, to retard or speed up setting, or as a plasticizer to improve mortar work-ability.
See also tie. A piece or connected pieces of metal or plastic used to attach building parts such as plates or joists to masonry materials, or attach masonry facings to the building structure.
A structural member used to span openings or recesses. Structurally, an arch is a component, or assembly of components, so arranged over an opening that the supported load is resolved into pressures on the side supports.
Articulated masonry construction
AS (or AS/NZS)
|Brick arch terms|
|Typical clay block dimensions|
- Tying the various parts of a brick wall by lapping one unit over another.
- Adhesion of mortar to a brick.
- Pattern formed by exposed brick faces.
- Colonial bond Three stretcher courses fol- lowed by one header course. Example: English garden wall bond.
- English bond Alternate stretcher and header courses.
- Flemish bond Alternate headers and stretch- ers in each course.
- Garden wall bond Three stretchers to one header in each course.
- Stack bond Stretchers laid one above the other with the perpends in line.
- Stretcher bond All stretchers, except where a header is needed to complete a course. Also called half bond.
- Gross volume not exceeding 4 x 103 mm (about double the volume of a traditional size brick).
- Length not less than 1.5 times the width and not more than 390 mm.
- Height not greater than 60 percent of length.
- Air brick Terracotta or similar fired clay unit built into a wall to allow air circulation through the wall.
- Brick shapes See shaped brick.
- Callow brick An underfired clay brick.
- Clinker brick A very hard fired clay brick, often bloated and distorted, produced by burning to the point of complete vitrification.
- Common brick
- Any brick made primarily for building pur- poses and not especially treated for texture or colour.
- Reject facing bricks of a quality suitable for use where they will not be visible in the finished wall.
- Dough-boy See callow brick.
- Dry pressed brick Brick made by high pres- sure moulding of a free-flowing clay or shale powder with a 5 to 10 percent moisture content.
- Extruded brick Brick made by forcing clay with an 18 to 25 percent moisture content through a die in a continuous column that is then wire cut to the required height; aka a wirecut brick.
- Fire brick Brick made from refractory ceramic material that will withstand high temperatures.
- Facing brick Brick made primarily for use where it will be visible in the finished wall.
- Hard-fired/burned brick A term applied to bricks fired at high temperatures to near vitrifica- tion producing low water absorption and high compressive strength.
- Modular brick A brick with format dimensions that are multiples of a 100 mm module. Usual work sizes: 290x90x90 mm or 190x90x90 mm.
- Modulated brick A brick with modular dimen- sions in length and width but its height is such that several units are required to achieve a multi-module. For example: work size
- 290x90x65 mm – four courses to a height of 300 mm.
- Re-pressed brick Brick made by extruding clay with a 14 to 17 percent moisture content into a mould to give a roughly shaped clot that is then compacted and repressed. Aka stiff plastic pressed brick.
- Traditional (size) brick Unit with a work size of 230x110x76 mm.
- Wire cut brick See brick – extruded brick.
California Bearing Ratio (CBR)
Cavity brick/cavity wall (construction)
Clay masonry unit
- Bevelled closer A brick cut to have one end half the normal dimension and the other end full width.
- King closer A brick with one corner cut off between the mid-points of adjacent sides.
- Queen closer A brick that has been cut in half longitudinally.
Damp-proof course (DPC)
Dimensions (of units)
|Typical paver edge types|
Expansion joint (or gap)
Fire resistance level (FRL)
|Typical section thru flexible clay pavement|
Garden wall bond
Hit and miss brickwork
Initial rate of absorption (IRA)
- Bed joint The horizontal layer of mortar on which the brick is laid.
- Concave joint A joint with a concave surface, aka ironed joint.
- Cross joint See perpend.
- Flush joint Joint trowelled to a smooth surface flush with the brickwork.
- Head joint See perpend.
- Ironed joint see concave joint.
- Raked joint Joint raked out to give a key for plaster or to accentuate the line of the joints.
- Struck joint A trowelled finish leaving the mortar at a slight angle to the face of the brickwork with the upper edge flush with the brick face and a shallow ledge below. Prefer a weatherstruck joint.
- Weatherstruck joint A trowelled finish similar to a struck joint but with the lower edge flush with the brick face. More durable than a struck joint.
|Brick joint finishes types|
Lateral support (of walls)
- Clay masonry unit Generic term encompassing clay bricks and blocks.
- Cement mortar A mortar composed of one part of cement to three parts of sand. Up to one quarter part of lime may be added. (All measurements are by volume.)
- Composition mortar Often called compo. A mortar composed of any one of the following proportions by volume:
- Fat mortar A plastic, workable mortar, containing a high proportion of fine grained plasticising material.
- Harsh mortar A mortar that has poor workability and is difficult to spread. Also called hungry mortar.
- Lean mortar A mortar that has a small proportion of cementitious material.
- Lime mortar A mortar composed of one part of hydrated lime to three parts of sand.
- Mortar aggregate Fine granular material (sand) composed of hard, strong and durable mineral products free from injurious amounts of saline, alkaline, organic or other deleterious substances.
Movement joint (or gap)
New building bloom
Nominal size (of bricks)
|Twelve popular paving patterns|
Pier and panel construction
- Isolated pier A freestanding pier that may or may not be loadbearing. Aka isolated, sleeper or detached pier.
- Engaged pier A pier that is bonded to a wall. Also called an attached pier or pilaster.
Pig (in a wall)
- Tuckpointing A process traditionally used to artificially create the appearance of brickwork of great precision. Achieved by raking the joints and filling them flush with a mortar coloured to match the bricks. A thin joint, usually of white mortar, is applied to the surface and trimmed on each side.
Reinforced grouted cavity brickwork
- The action of mixing additional water into the mortar set out on the bricklayers’ boards to replace the water lost by evaporation.
- The bad practice of adding fresh cement to partially-set mortar.
Snap (or snapped) header
- A leaf or two or more leaves of brickwork bonded to form a composite element.
- Colloquial term for cavity brickwork (see full- brick (construction)).
Special brick/Special shape brick
Story rod (pole)
Thermal inertia (of brickwork)
Units of measure
- dB (decibel) A measure of sound level
- em value An estimate of the amount of growth expected over the 15 years after the clay masonry unit has left the kiln. See moisture expansion.
- kN (kilonewton) A measure of force
- MPa (megapascal) A measure of pressure
- R value A measure of thermal resistance, that is the resistance given by a wall to the transmission of heat. The reciprocal of U value.
- U value The thermal transmittance value, that is the ease with which heat moves through a wall. The reciprocal of R-value
Volumetric heat capacity (of brickwork)
- Base wall That portion of a wall below the level of the adjacent grade, or below the structure of the lower floor.
- Bearing wall A wall that supports a substantially vertical load in addition to its own weight.
- Brick veneer wall See brick-veneer (construction).
- Cavity wall See full-brick (construction).
- Dwarf wall A wall or partition that does not extend to the ceiling; also an interior wall between the topmost ceiling level and the finished roof level. Any low wall. Also used for the wall that supports the floor joists. Aka sleeper wall.
- Exterior wall Any outside wall or vertical enclosure of a building other than a party wall.
- Foundation wall See base wall.
- Parapet wall That part of any wall entirely above the roof line.
- Party wall A wall used for joint service by adjoining buildings.
- Sleeper wall See dwarf wall.
- Spandrel wall That part of a wall above the top of a window in one storey and below the sill of the window in the storey above. See also arch.
- Veneered wall A wall in which the facing and backing are tied together, but not bonded in a manner that ensures common action under load. Compare brick-veneer (construction).